Employee Selection Methods

Selecting and hiring the employees for a specific job is the most crucial task that is performed in any organization. Selection of employees is a process that has got strong influence over the success of any organization. The decision for the employee selection should be made by considering the nature of the job in mind. It is required that the process of employee selection should be equipped with planning, staffing and retention activities. While selecting the employees the information of the individuals is collected and evaluated by making use of different methods. Many different methods are available for the selection of employees like interviewing, testing, advertising, application forms, presentation, referee checks and screening and so on. All these methods do have their own advantages and disadvantages. It is not necessary that the method that has been successfully applied at one place will be successful everywhere. All the organizations have different requirements for hiring the employees. So, the selection of the method should be done according to the nature of the organization and job. There are many factors that may influence the methods of selection and recruitment. These factors may be of two kinds which are internal factors and external factors. For any organization, it is necessary that the people who are responsible for selecting the employees should understand the impacts of these factors. If the affects of these factors are known in previous, then the organization would be able to select the appropriate method for selecting and hiring the employees. In this paper we have discussed these different factors that may influence the methods of employee selection. (Kleiman, 1, 2009)


Factors Affecting the Employee Selection Methods
    As it has been defined above that there are many dissimilar methods used for the employee selection. The choice of employee selection method depends on the nature of the job and organization. These selection methods are governed by the different factors. These factors may be environmental, external and internal factors.  Following we have described the different factors that may affect the methods of employee selection

Environmental Factors
Every organization is having some sort of environment which is constituted by some elements. These elements of the environment may have impacts over every function that is being performed in the organization. Similarly, the affects can also be observed over the methods of employee selection. Few of the environmental factors are given below

Other HR Functions HR functions, other than the selection and recruitment may affect the method of selection. The comparison exists between the different departments and operations of the organization. The competition mainly exists between the factors such as compensation packages, health or safety facilities and so on. If these differences exist then it affects the selection methods in the sense that it gets difficult to hire the best employees.

Legal Considerations The legal considerations define the criteria for the selection of the employees. These legal considerations are different for different jobs. These considerations are necessary for shaping the eligibility criteria of the employees. These considerations keep on changing for different nature of jobs and so it affects the method of selection as well. The reason is that the selection method has to be formulated based on these legal considerations.

Speed of Decision Making The time period that is available for the selection and recruitment process also affects the method of employee selection. Obviously, the method will be selected that can be performed effectively in the given time period. There are many jobs that need the employee quickly otherwise, the organization might not function properly. In such cases, it will become necessary to choose the quickest selection method.

Organizational Hierarchy It is a fact that the nature of organization may also affect the selection method to the large extent. Also, the levels at which the jobs are required also do have impacts over the selection methods. There is a huge difference in selecting the method for the job of chief executive and the data entry operator. For higher posts, the methods will be selected that may overview the background properly along with some interviews. On the other hand, for the low level posts only a test can be enough for selecting the employee.

Type of organization
The organizations are of different kinds like private, public, semi private, NGOs, government and so on. All types of organizations do have their own strategies. In private sector, huge competition is observed and the method is chosen that can find out the best employee who can provide the organization with large profit. While, the governmental organizations arrange the competitive tests. Hence the nature of organization affects the selection method.

Probationary Period
The trend of keeping a probationary period is now getting common in many organizations. This period is set to examine the performance of the selected employee in the given time period. If the candidate is successful in performing according to the expectations then no more selection methods will be required.

The above are the most common environmental factors that may influence the selection method. All these factors are important and may have different affects. (Mondy, 121, 1998)

External Factors
There exist many factors that are not a part of the organizations. These factors are not under the control of the organization as well. Such factors are named as external factors and these are also having impacts over the employee selection method. The description of these factors is given below
Supply and Demand The most important element for the selection and recruitment in any organization is the current availability of work force. Also, the number of candidates that are applying for the particular job holds equal importance for any organization. The selection method is chosen according to the need of the company. Before selecting the method it should be found that how many professionals are required by the organization. Right after that, it should be considered that how many professionals can be provided by the market. Hence, the selection method should be chosen after making these two considerations.

Labor Market
The locations of the organization for which the employees are being selected should be observed first in terms of employment condition. These conditions may affect the process of selection to the large extent. If at the time of selection and recruitment the candidates observe the conditions like surplus of workforce or any other informal attempt then naturally their mind would be diverted towards the particular organizations. A healthy and strong labor market can attract a large number of candidates to apply in that particular organization.

Image or Good Will Obviously, the image of the organization is having its impacts over every function or operation that is being performed. The organization that is having a strong positive image is always likely to attract a large number of candidates to apply. On the other hand, if the organization is not having that strong image then the number of candidates will also be limited. So, this factor will affect the selection method as it will be selected according to the number of candidates applying and also based on the image of the organization. 

Political, Legal and Social Environment
In many organizations various political, social and legal constraints are found in their laws and policies. These may also affect the recruitment process. The union of any organization holds great importance and can be a great restriction for the management in choosing the selection method.

Unemployment Rate 
The condition of the economy is again a very important factor. It is very important to know that what the current rate of the economy is.  It is also required to find out that whether the economy is growing or not. These are important considerations as the status of the economy will allow the organizations to create more jobs. When the rate of unemployment goes high then the selection method is very restrictive. On the other hand, in normal conditions the normal method is chosen.

Competitors
The organizations should also keep in mind about the policy of selection and recruitment of the competitive organizations. Obviously, a large competition is existing in the market so it is required that such policy and method should be chosen that is better than the one selected y the competitive organizations.

The above stated are the external factors that may highly affect the selection methods. These factors should be kept while deciding the selection policy and methods. Considering the external factors is most important as these factors cannot be controlled by the organization. (External factors affecting recruitment, 1, 2007)

Internal Factors
There are many factors that exist inside the organization and may affect the process of selection and recruitment. These factors are controlled by the organization itself and are known as the internal factors. Following is the details of the internal factors affecting the employee selection methods
Policy of Recruitment Every organization is having some special policy or rules for the process of recruitment and selection. The purpose of the policy of selection and recruitment helps the organization to clearly define the goals and objectives. The desired output from the process of selection and recruitment is established and also it provides the framework that should be followed for the implementation of the selection method. It is quite necessary to select the method that can fulfill the objectives at the maximum level. Following the recruitment policy for choosing the appropriate method is very necessary as the policy has been established by taking under considerations all the aspects of the organization.

Organizational Objectives The objectives of the organization are also very important for selecting the employee selection method. If the objective of the organization is to have a team of professionals and creative people then the employees of that category will be selected. In such situation, it is required that the applied method can easily judge these qualities of the candidates.

Human Resource Planning The Human Resource is the most effective department of any organization. So, it is required that the planning of Human Resource should be very strong and effective as well. The Human Resource planning helps a lot in finding out that what is the current work force and what is the required. This planning may also allow finding out the required qualities that may help to perform the job successfully. In short, Human Resource Management plays a great role in the process of selection and recruitment. As a result it has also got high influences over the choice of employee selection method. The eligibility for a certain job and the number of employees is also determined by the HRM.

Size of the Organization The size of the organization is one of the main factors that are considered while selecting the employee selection method. If the organization is large and having a number of operations then obviously it will be requiring large number of workforce. In case of small organization and limited number of operations the required workforce would also be limited. Whenever the organizations plan to expand the operations then the need of more employees is felt and then the appropriate method is chosen.

Cost All the employee selection methods do involve some costs of performing those methods. It is a fact that all the organizations will try to adapt the selection method that may bear the low costs of implementing the particular method. A budget should be kept in mind that can be applied by the company over a single candidate.

Growth and Expansion AS it has been discussed earlier that if the organizations are aimed to grow its businesses and operations then the need of more employees will be felt. At this level, the method will be chosen according to the number of employees needed.

Need of Organization The selection method highly depends over the number of employees and the level of employees needed by the organizations. If an organization is hiring a number of employees then the selected method will be the one that can examine a number of candidates. But, if only a couple of employees are to be selected then the chosen method will be the one that can judge the employees in detail.

The above stated ate the internal factors of the organization that may have affects over the selection methods of the organization.